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Cancer

I have written the following blog post and pinned it so that cancer researchers  who may come across this blog post can get ideas about why cancer occurs, how to think about cellular states in tumor formation and how they relate to the driver mutations and the tumor microenvironment. Hope it is useful.
The risk of developing cancer increases with age. The probabilities of errors in replication resulting in cancer causing mutation  occur because of the second law of thermodynamics . Error in DNA replication implies lack of  precision/accuracy in replication and an increase in randomness. This is exactly what the second law of thermodynamics predicts- an increase in entropy i.e randomness of the universe. With age the human dies, loss of physical organization of the human body occurs, matter gets converted to energy, and energy is returned back to the universe. So for treatment of cancer local entropy has to be decreased to regain back organization/precision accuracy. This means drugs …

What if:

Each particle is a vibration in a field. Particles interact with each other to give rise to higher orders of emergence.

 What if consciousness/sentience  is the vibration at each level, and interactions of vibrations at higher orders of emergence form complicated structures giving rise to consciousness as manifested through the living brain.

A plant is living and is different from a table made of wood, because the arrangement of atoms is different in a plant versus wood and plant/life interacts with the environment whereas wood does not.

Talking about memories : if they are encoded in the synaptic connections in the brain or within a neuron when the neuron dies the memory dies as structure is lost. But the atoms remain as combinations of vibrations in a field .

What if consciousness is  the vibratory energies at each level of emergence. In higher orders of emergence, vibrations/particles  interact with each other and through phase transition give rise to the brain and mind.

Phase transition and the Phenomenal Self

Even a baby has a notion of self. It cries and laughs when the "other" touches it, makes sounds towards it. This implies the self is a constant from infancy.

What is this self ?

I think it to be an emergent phenomenon of physiological process that govern proprioception and that remains throughout life and even during processes such as sleeping and dreaming.

Everything is connected to everthing else in some way. A simple explanation is as follows:
At every level of emergence the superimposing layer is resonating with the underlying layer at the same frequency , but the amplitude of each layer is different. Each layer of emergence consists of resonating frequencies with differing amplitudes that branch to form a fractal like pattern, giving rise to complexity.

Concepts of entanglement at the quantum level are beginning to be discovered which support the above.

When the complexity of vibrations/oscillatory motion reaches a certain critical threshold, phase transition occurs an…

Sands of time-Predictive search for cures\treatments

What if the diagnosis of a disease is a particular state : (Snapshot). If time is emergent and the diagnosis comprises of snapshots of  diseased states, the earlier diseased states erodes with time (since the snapshot is an observation-in emergent time, time is a series of states stitched together by mental processes of the brain). So the treatment has to be based on prediction of the future diseased states.

CLOCKS

Energy Alignment= Clocks at different speeds (Markov Blankets)-InSYNC.

Consciousness

Substratum Consciousness-Single Wave (Scalar) I Observation-Particles-Markov Blankets I Emergent Consciousness Multiple Waves (Vector)

What is reality ?

Energy Signatures----->Perceptual reality !

Energy Efficiency

Energy efficient propagation of information. Higher order structures have evolved for greater energy efficiency. Structure has developed to be more organized for energy efficient propgation of information. The more organized the structure, the higher it is in the hierarchical organization, the greater the energy efficient propagation of information.

Process

Resonance-->Hierarchy-->Alignment.

Morality-Science

Morality-Alignment of Energy.

Mutations in Cancer

How do genetic mutations arise-? Through mis-directed energy transformations which result in error during semi/conservative DNA replication.

Analogy

Intuition-Opacity.
Rationality-Transclucent.

Energy

Chaotic Energy/Dynamism---->Regulated Energy/Alignment. Energy Transformation.

Viewpoint-Perspective

The same observation can be made by different human beings. However since each brain acts as a filter the same observation can have a different interpretations depending on that particular person. Therefore the same dataset can be interpreted differently by persons of different caliber/different algorithms/persons with specializations in different subjects.

water

Water-Statistical mechanics

Virus

Image
viruses:non-living---->living/cellular
viruses:static---->dynamic

Equations

Image

Insights

Image

Bootstrapping epigenetics/perception

Altered gene environment interactions---->Altered  epigenetics----> Altered perception------>Altered epigenetics

Meditation-Physics

Meditation=Vector----->Scalar//Multiplicity--->Duality----->Unity

Upanishads/Holographic principle

Manifestation/Projection(vyakrta)---->Unmanifest(avyakrta)-Upanishads/Holographic Principle
3D (vector) projection of 2D information(vector)---->1D (scalar)energy distribution at equilibrium-Energy conserved as information-Ist law of thermodynamics

Scalar/Vector

Scalar-free energy +decrease in free entropy=Vector +increase in entropy
Scalar-entropy=Vector

Coarse graining

During coarse graining, by decreasing scalar information, skewing inference towards vectorial information.

Disease in context of scalarity

Homeostatic State=Vectorial.
Diseased state= Scalar.

Emergent Complexity-Scalar versus Vector

Scalar without direction, Vector with direction as determined by change in free energy of the reaction.
DeltaG=DeltaH-T.DeltaS. A non spontaneous reaction has a positive delta G and negative deltaG for a spontaneous reaction . DeltaG =Gibbs free energy.
Greater degree of vectorization/directionality=Greater negative deltaG.
Greater degree of vectorization=Greater organized emergent Complexity.
When degree of vectorization reaches critical point, Markov blanket is created, next layer of emergence, develops.
Phase transition occurs when degree of vectorization falls below critical point  markov blanket dissolves and continuity prevails over discrete. deltaG increases in this case.
E.g. in epithelial  to mesenchymal phase transition in cancer, an intermediate stem-like state occurs where degree of vectorization falls below critical point, markov blanket between the epithelial layer of emergence and mesenchymal layer of emergence dissolves, an incease in scalarity occurs.
Pluripotent ste…

Dissolution of Markov Blankets

Can Markov Blankets be dissolved ? From the discrete to the continuous on a spectrum.
Can dissolution of Markov blankets cause disease by destroying distinct pathogen host boundaries?
Is the key to cellular homeostasis-maintaining a markov blanket between opposing signaling pathways ?
Is non duality a result of dissolved markov blankets ?
Is the experience of a discrete self  emergent from maintenance of markov blankets in continuous neuronal circuits ?

Markov Blankets-Existence

Do Markov blankets separate one layer of emergence from the next ?
Do Markov blankets separate the the worlds in the  everettian many worlds  approach to quantum mechanics ?
Do Markov blankets separate universes in a predicted multiverse ?
Do Markov blankets  separate the different dimensions predicted by the string theory ?

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/15/138/20170792

Probability-System1/2

System 1: evolved for food/mates/survival etc-High probability of usage. Does not require much effort

System 2: evolved for rational thought etc-Low probability of usage-Asks questions like: What is reality ? Requires a lot of sustained effort.

Hypothesis/Question: Do education,intellectual exercises, meditation strengthen system 2.

Cognitive biases related to research

Cognitive biases I have commonly encountered in research: Related to hypothesis making/testing,data analyses and decisions for lab experiments

Availability heuristic-overestimate importance of available information
Recency-weigh recent information more heavily
Bandwagon effect-groupthink
Clustering illusion-see patterns in random events
Confirmation bias-confirmation of preconception
Zero risk bias-favoring certainty

For more comprehensive lists

http://mentalfloss.com/article/68705/20-cognitive-biases-affect-your-decisions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias#List

Recommended reading: Thinking Fast and Slow-Daniel Kahneman


Assumptions-Are they related to cognitive biases ?

Can we say that an assumption is  a cognitive bias.

Assumption-For what there is no evidence but it is still taken to be true.
Google definition-a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.


cognitive bias is a mistake in reasoning, evaluating, remembering, or other cognitive process, often occurring as a result of holding onto one's preferences and beliefs regardless of contrary information. 
So when a person is making a select assumption could that person be unknowingly tapping into their inherent cognitive bias e.g. assumption from memory=availability  heuristic cognitive bias.

Based on this argument "all research" in which each piece of research has some sort of hidden assumptions has inherent cognitive biases of the researcher.

Fine Graining in the Cancer context

Coarse graining of cellular macrostates can be done at the macroscale. For e.g. if there are cellular macrostates A--->B<=>C---->D, it can be coarse grained to A--->B/C--->D, where A is a group of cancer cells that divide but to a limited extent forming a  pre-cancerous lesion (B) or a benign tumor(C). B and C are interchangeable. When either B or C overcomes the inhibitory signaling of the tumor microenvironment they get converted to a malignant/metastasizing state (D). If  A and D are considered analogous to a  binary switch 0/1 , then the transition between the normal cell and a tumorigenic cell can be considered as :off/on; A/B;0/1 states which can be coarse grained with a single intermediary state B/C.

However each cellular macrostate can consist of  temporally regulated dynamic signal transduction networks. A--->B transition can be considered a series of microstate transitions such as a--->a1--->a2---->a3........b.
Each microstate is a certain conf…

Questions -Research Gate

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sonali_Sengupta8/questions

Markov chains-Cellular states in Cancer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markov_model

Cellular States in Cancer:
Visualization-Oscillating pendulum

Cellular states preceding and following tumorigenesis are  like- an oscillating pendulum that  overshoots mean position once (equivalent to cellular state i.e benign tumor after primary mutational hit-State A). The pendulum tries to  come back to mean balance position (equivalent to restoring homeostasis in cell after primary mutational hit). Due to  loss of elasticity of pendulum string (equivalent to secondary hit due to tumor microenvironment interactions) status quo of extreme position maintained, (which is  equivalent to malignant tumor-State B ).

Idea for a drug- A compound that decreases the probability of  transitioning from state A to state B

Activating a tumor suppressor/inhibiting an oncogene within a tumor by a drug may alter tumor cellular state. Tumor cells may adapt and give survival cues to the tumor microenvironment. So drug has to target signaling by tumor microen…

Coarse graining -Disease

Biological Research involves coarse graining-simplifying in order to obtain a model. Is this the reason drugs against diseases like cancer fail in clinical trials ?

Conscious AI

Can Artificial Intelligence become conscious if the information about mental processing which is lost in models during coarse graining is regained ?

Potential versus Actualization

What is the difference between a cancer stem cell and stemness in cancer. Actually a lot. A cancer stem cell is a cell with a realized/actualized potential, while stemness is determined by unrealized potential. Its like a tree versus a seed. The plant is an intermediate stage. So a change from unrealized potential to actualizations passes through different stages of growth.

The idea of my blog is to trigger your thinking

Why do you even need to read my blog.

Firstly it is not about news or updates. Its about topics which I forsee as important and my musings on it. On reading it , the articles/one liners should be able to trigger your thought process for newer ideas, ways of approaching science related problems, basically be inspirational, all without budging from your computer. I am interested in humans all over the world.

 Briefly the interests  in this blog are:

1. Life as in Biology including emergence, adaptation
2. Cancer-because a lot is unknown
3. A layman's musings regarding Physics-as it forms the fundamentals of science
4. Meditation-Many people are practising it and I am curious about the mechanisms involved
5. Philosophy in the Indian context

The whole idea is about speculating and stimulating cogitation. My ideas may not be true, but they are there to stimulate yours. Agree, Disagee, Question -I have acheived my goal.

Adaptation

Are humans sculpting their environment leading to adaptation and inheritance of adapted traits ?

Emergent Properties in Biology

I am writing this blog post to connect the ideas of emergence with what we know in biology.
Interactions leading to emergent properties, such as the phenotype of an organism, which emerges from the genotype/blueprint of the organism is where biology research is heading to.

The genotype is encoded in the DNA of the organism which through the transcriptional and translational machinery gets converted into proteins. These proteins interact with each other in signal transduction networks which consist of positive and negative feedback loops. It is these signaling networks which convey the signal from outside a cell to the functionality of the cell.  On the other hand, the proteins interact with the DNA and can regulate switching on/off of genes via epigenetic mechanisms.
 So in a cell there are  layers of interactions, where each layer instructs the subsequent layer, and the functional property of the cell emerges from the genotype. The layers of  cellular processes  are epigenetic regul…

Cancer , Entropy , Pendulum model of Cancer

I have written the following blog post and pinned it so that cancer researchers  who may come across this blog post can get ideas about why cancer occurs, how to think about cellular states in tumor formation and how they relate to the driver mutations and the tumor microenvironment. Hope it is useful.
The risk of developing cancer increases with age. The probabilities of errors in replication resulting in cancer causing mutation  occur because of the second law of thermodynamics . Error in DNA replication implies lack of  precision/accuracy in replication and an increase in randomness. This is exactly what the second law of thermodynamics predicts- an increase in entropy i.e randomness of the universe. With age the human dies, loss of physical organization of the human body occurs, matter gets converted to energy, and energy is returned back to the universe. So for treatment of cancer local entropy has to be decreased to regain back organization/precision accuracy. This means drugs …